Do people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of cancer?
Yes. People infected with HIV have a substantially higher risk of some types of cancer compared with uninfected people of the same age (1). The general term for these cancers is “HIV-associated cancers.” Three of these cancers are known as “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs)-defining cancers” or “AIDS-defining malignancies”: Kaposi sarcoma, aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer. A diagnosis of any of these cancers in someone infected with HIV confirms a diagnosis of AIDS.
Compared with the general population, people infected with HIV are currently about 500 times more likely to be diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma, 12 times more likely to be diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and, among women, 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer (2).